6.32.2 AVR Variable Attributes

progmem
The progmem attribute is used on the AVR to place read-only data in the non-volatile program memory (flash). The progmem attribute accomplishes this by putting respective variables into a section whose name starts with .progmem .

This attribute works similar to the section attribute but adds additional checking.

•  Ordinary AVR cores with 32 general purpose registers:
progmem affects the location of the data but not how this data is accessed. In order to read data located with the progmem attribute (inline) assembler must be used.
               /* Use custom macros from AVR-LibC
 */
               #include <avr/pgmspace.h>
               
               /* Locate var in flash memory */
               const int var[2] PROGMEM = { 1, 2 };
               
               int read_var (int i)
               {
                   /* Access var[] by accessor macro from avr/pgmspace.h */
                   return (int) pgm_read_word (& var[i]);
               }

AVR is a Harvard architecture processor and data and read-only data normally resides in the data memory (RAM).

See also the AVR Named Address Spaces section for an alternate way to locate and access data in flash memory.

• Reduced AVR Tiny cores like ATtiny40:
The compiler adds 0x4000 to the addresses of objects and declarations in progmem and locates the objects in flash memory, namely in section .progmem.data . The offset is needed because the flash memory is visible in the RAM address space starting at address 0x4000 .

Data in progmem can be accessed by means of ordinary C code, no special functions or macros are needed.

               /* var is located in flash memory */
               extern const int var[2] __attribute__((progmem));
               
               int read_var (int i)
               {
                   return var[i];
               }

Please notice that on these devices, there is no need for progmem at all. Just use an appropriate linker description file like outlined below.

                 .text :
                 { ...
                 } > text
                 /* Leave .rodata in flash and add an offset of 0x4000 to all
                    addresses so that respective objects can be accessed by
                    LD instructions and open coded C/C++.  This means there
                    is no need for progmem in the source and no overhead by
                    read-only data in RAM.  */
                 .rodata ADDR(.text) + SIZEOF (.text) + 0x4000 :
                 {
                   *(.rodata)
                   *(.rodata*)
                   *(.gnu.linkonce.r*)
                 } AT> text
                 /* No more need to put .rodata into .data:
                    Removed all .rodata entries from .data.  */
                 .data :
                 { ...

io
io ( addr )
Variables with the io attribute are used to address memory-mapped peripherals in the io address range. If an address is specified, the variable is assigned that address, and the value is interpreted as an address in the data address space. Example:
          volatile int porta __attribute__((io (0x22)));

The address specified in the address in the data address range.

Otherwise, the variable it is not assigned an address, but the compiler will still use in/out instructions where applicable, assuming some other module assigns an address in the io address range. Example:

          extern volatile int porta __attribute__((io));

io_low
io_low ( addr )
This is like the io attribute, but additionally it informs the compiler that the object lies in the lower half of the I/O area, allowing the use of cbi , sbi , sbic and sbis instructions.
address
address ( addr )
Variables with the address attribute are used to address memory-mapped peripherals that may lie outside the io address range.
          volatile int porta __attribute__((address (0x600)));

absdata
Variables in static storage and with the absdata attribute can be accessed by the LDS and STS instructions which take absolute addresses.
  • This attribute is only supported for the reduced AVR Tiny core like ATtiny40.
  • You must make sure that respective data is located in the address range 0x40 ... 0xbf accessible by LDS and STS . One way to achieve this as an appropriate linker description file.
  • If the location does not fit the address range of LDS and STS , there is currently (Binutils 2.26) just an unspecific warning like
    module.c:(.text+0x1c): warning: internal error: out of range error

See also the -mabsdata command-line option .