The MIPS configurations of GNU
as support these special options:
Set the “small data” limit to n bytes. The default limit is 8 bytes. See Controlling the use of small data accesses.
Any MIPS configuration of
as can select big-endian or little-endian output at run time (unlike the other GNU development tools, which must be configured for one or the other). Use ‘-EB’ to select big-endian output, and ‘-EL’ for little-endian.
Generate SVR4-style PIC. This option tells the assembler to generate SVR4-style position-independent macro expansions. It also tells the assembler to mark the output file as PIC.
Generate VxWorks PIC. This option tells the assembler to generate VxWorks-style position-independent macro expansions.
Generate code for a particular MIPS Instruction Set Architecture level. ‘-mips1’ corresponds to the R2000 and R3000 processors, ‘-mips2’ to the R6000 processor, ‘-mips3’ to the R4000 processor, and ‘-mips4’ to the R8000 and R10000 processors. ‘-mips5’, ‘-mips32’, ‘-mips32r2’, ‘-mips32r3’, ‘-mips32r5’, ‘-mips32r6’, ‘-mips64’, ‘-mips64r2’, ‘-mips64r3’, ‘-mips64r5’, and ‘-mips64r6’ correspond to generic MIPS V, MIPS32, MIPS32 Release 2, MIPS32 Release 3, MIPS32 Release 5, MIPS32 Release 6, MIPS64, and MIPS64 Release 2, MIPS64 Release 3, MIPS64 Release 5, and MIPS64 Release 6 ISA processors, respectively. You can also switch instruction sets during the assembly; see Directives to override the ISA level.
Some macros have different expansions for 32-bit and 64-bit registers. The register sizes are normally inferred from the ISA and ABI, but these flags force a certain group of registers to be treated as 32 bits wide at all times. ‘-mgp32’ controls the size of general-purpose registers and ‘-mfp32’ controls the size of floating-point registers.
.set gp=32 and
.set fp=32 directives allow the size of registers to be changed for parts of an object. The default value is restored by
.set gp=default and
On some MIPS variants there is a 32-bit mode flag; when this flag is set, 64-bit instructions generate a trap. Also, some 32-bit OSes only save the 32-bit registers on a context switch, so it is essential never to use the 64-bit registers.
Assume that 64-bit registers are available. This is provided in the interests of symmetry with ‘-mgp32’ and ‘-mfp32’.
.set gp=64 and
.set fp=64 directives allow the size of registers to be changed for parts of an object. The default value is restored by
.set gp=default and
Make no assumptions about whether 32-bit or 64-bit floating-point registers are available. This is provided to support having modules compatible with either ‘-mfp32’ or ‘-mfp64’. This option can only be used with MIPS II and above.
.set fp=xx directive allows a part of an object to be marked as not making assumptions about 32-bit or 64-bit FP registers. The default value is restored by
Enable use of floating-point operations on odd-numbered single-precision registers when supported by the ISA. ‘-mfpxx’ implies ‘-mno-odd-spreg’, otherwise the default is ‘-modd-spreg’
Generate code for the MIPS 16 processor. This is equivalent to putting
.module mips16 at the start of the assembly file. ‘-no-mips16’ turns off this option.
Enable the use of MIPS16e2 instructions in MIPS16 mode. This is equivalent to putting
.module mips16e2 at the start of the assembly file. ‘-mno-mips16e2’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the microMIPS processor. This is equivalent to putting
.module micromips at the start of the assembly file. ‘-mno-micromips’ turns off this option. This is equivalent to putting
.module nomicromips at the start of the assembly file.
Enables the SmartMIPS extensions to the MIPS32 instruction set, which provides a number of new instructions which target smartcard and cryptographic applications. This is equivalent to putting
.module smartmips at the start of the assembly file. ‘-mno-smartmips’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the MIPS-3D Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MIPS-3D instructions. ‘-no-mips3d’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the MDMX Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MDMX instructions. ‘-no-mdmx’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the DSP Release 1 Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept DSP Release 1 instructions. ‘-mno-dsp’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the DSP Release 2 Application Specific Extension. This option implies ‘-mdsp’. This tells the assembler to accept DSP Release 2 instructions. ‘-mno-dspr2’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the DSP Release 3 Application Specific Extension. This option implies ‘-mdsp’ and ‘-mdspr2’. This tells the assembler to accept DSP Release 3 instructions. ‘-mno-dspr3’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the MT Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MT instructions. ‘-mno-mt’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the MCU Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MCU instructions. ‘-mno-mcu’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the MIPS SIMD Architecture Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MSA instructions. ‘-mno-msa’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the MIPS eXtended Physical Address (XPA) Extension. This tells the assembler to accept XPA instructions. ‘-mno-xpa’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the Virtualization Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept Virtualization instructions. ‘-mno-virt’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept CRC instructions. ‘-mno-crc’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the Global INValidate (GINV) Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept GINV instructions. ‘-mno-ginv’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the Loongson MultiMedia extensions Instructions (MMI) Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept MMI instructions. ‘-mno-loongson-mmi’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the Loongson Content Address Memory (CAM) Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept CAM instructions. ‘-mno-loongson-cam’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the Loongson EXTensions (EXT) instructions Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept EXT instructions. ‘-mno-loongson-ext’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the Loongson EXTensions R2 (EXT2) instructions Application Specific Extension. This tells the assembler to accept EXT2 instructions. ‘-mno-loongson-ext2’ turns off this option.
Only use 32-bit instruction encodings when generating code for the microMIPS processor. This option inhibits the use of any 16-bit instructions. This is equivalent to putting
.set insn32 at the start of the assembly file. ‘-mno-insn32’ turns off this option. This is equivalent to putting
.set noinsn32 at the start of the assembly file. By default ‘-mno-insn32’ is selected, allowing all instructions to be used.
Cause nops to be inserted if the read of the destination register of an mfhi or mflo instruction occurs in the following two instructions.
Cause nops to be inserted if a dmult or dmultu instruction is followed by a load instruction.
Eliminate instruction fetch from outside 256M region to work around the Loongson2F ‘jump’ instructions. Without it, under extreme cases, the kernel may crash. The issue has been solved in latest processor batches, but this fix has no side effect to them.
Replace nops by
or at,at,zero to work around the Loongson2F ‘nop’ errata. Without it, under extreme cases, the CPU might deadlock. The issue has been solved in later Loongson2F batches, but this fix has no side effect to them.
Insert ‘sync’ before ‘ll’ and ‘lld’ to work around Loongson3 LLSC errata. Without it, under extrame cases, the CPU might deadlock. The default can be controlled by the --enable-mips-fix-loongson3-llsc=[yes|no] configure option.
Insert nops to work around certain VR4120 errata. This option is intended to be used on GCC-generated code: it is not designed to catch all problems in hand-written assembler code.
Insert nops to work around the VR4130 ‘mflo’/‘mfhi’ errata.
Insert nops to work around the 24K ‘eret’/‘deret’ errata.
pref hints 0 - 4 and 6 - 24 with hint 28 to work around certain CN63XXP1 errata.
Do not attempt to schedule the preceding instruction into the delay slot of a branch instruction placed at the end of a short loop of six instructions or fewer and always schedule a
nop instruction there instead. The short loop bug under certain conditions causes loops to execute only once or twice, due to a hardware bug in the R5900 chip.
Generate code for the LSI R4010 chip. This tells the assembler to accept the R4010-specific instructions (‘addciu’, ‘ffc’, etc.), and to not schedule ‘nop’ instructions around accesses to the ‘HI’ and ‘LO’ registers. ‘-no-m4010’ turns off this option.
Generate code for the MIPS R4650 chip. This tells the assembler to accept the ‘mad’ and ‘madu’ instruction, and to not schedule ‘nop’ instructions around accesses to the ‘HI’ and ‘LO’ registers. ‘-no-m4650’ turns off this option.
For each option ‘-mnnnn’, generate code for the MIPS Rnnnn chip. This tells the assembler to accept instructions specific to that chip, and to schedule for that chip’s hazards.
Generate code for a particular MIPS CPU. It is exactly equivalent to ‘-mcpu’, except that there are more value of cpu understood. Valid cpu value are:
2000, 3000, 3900, 4000, 4010, 4100, 4111, vr4120, vr4130, vr4181, 4300, 4400, 4600, 4650, 5000, rm5200, rm5230, rm5231, rm5261, rm5721, vr5400, vr5500, 6000, rm7000, 8000, rm9000, 10000, 12000, 14000, 16000, 4kc, 4km, 4kp, 4ksc, 4kec, 4kem, 4kep, 4ksd, m4k, m4kp, m14k, m14kc, m14ke, m14kec, 24kc, 24kf2_1, 24kf, 24kf1_1, 24kec, 24kef2_1, 24kef, 24kef1_1, 34kc, 34kf2_1, 34kf, 34kf1_1, 34kn, 74kc, 74kf2_1, 74kf, 74kf1_1, 74kf3_2, 1004kc, 1004kf2_1, 1004kf, 1004kf1_1, interaptiv, interaptiv-mr2, m5100, m5101, p5600, 5kc, 5kf, 20kc, 25kf, sb1, sb1a, i6400, i6500, p6600, loongson2e, loongson2f, gs464, gs464e, gs264e, octeon, octeon+, octeon2, octeon3, xlr, xlp
For compatibility reasons, ‘nx’ and ‘bfx’ are accepted as synonyms for ‘nf1_1’. These values are deprecated.
Schedule and tune for a particular MIPS CPU. Valid cpu values are identical to ‘-march=cpu’.
Record which ABI the source code uses. The recognized arguments are: ‘32’, ‘n32’, ‘o64’, ‘64’ and ‘eabi’.
Equivalent to adding
.set sym32 or
.set nosym32 to the beginning of the assembler input. See MIPS Symbol Sizes.
This option is ignored. It is accepted for command-line compatibility with other assemblers, which use it to turn off C style preprocessing. With GNU
as, there is no need for ‘-nocpp’, because the GNU assembler itself never runs the C preprocessor.
Disable or enable floating-point instructions. Note that by default floating-point instructions are always allowed even with CPU targets that don’t have support for these instructions.
Disable or enable double-precision floating-point operations. Note that by default double-precision floating-point operations are always allowed even with CPU targets that don’t have support for these operations.
--no-construct-floats option disables the construction of double width floating point constants by loading the two halves of the value into the two single width floating point registers that make up the double width register. This feature is useful if the processor support the FR bit in its status register, and this bit is known (by the programmer) to be set. This bit prevents the aliasing of the double width register by the single width registers.
--construct-floats is selected, allowing construction of these floating point constants.
The ‘--relax-branch’ option enables the relaxation of out-of-range branches. Any branches whose target cannot be reached directly are converted to a small instruction sequence including an inverse-condition branch to the physically next instruction, and a jump to the original target is inserted between the two instructions. In PIC code the jump will involve further instructions for address calculation.
BPOSGE64 instructions are excluded from relaxation, because they have no complementing counterparts. They could be relaxed with the use of a longer sequence involving another branch, however this has not been implemented and if their target turns out of reach, they produce an error even if branch relaxation is enabled.
Also no MIPS16 branches are ever relaxed.
By default ‘--no-relax-branch’ is selected, causing any out-of-range branches to produce an error.
Ignore branch checks for invalid transitions between ISA modes.
The semantics of branches does not provide for an ISA mode switch, so in most cases the ISA mode a branch has been encoded for has to be the same as the ISA mode of the branch’s target label. If the ISA modes do not match, then such a branch, if taken, will cause the ISA mode to remain unchanged and instructions that follow will be executed in the wrong ISA mode causing the program to misbehave or crash.
In the case of the
BAL instruction it may be possible to relax it to an equivalent
JALX instruction so that the ISA mode is switched at the run time as required. For other branches no relaxation is possible and therefore GAS has checks implemented that verify in branch assembly that the two ISA modes match, and report an error otherwise so that the problem with code can be diagnosed at the assembly time rather than at the run time.
However some assembly code, including generated code produced by some versions of GCC, may incorrectly include branches to data labels, which appear to require a mode switch but are either dead or immediately followed by valid instructions encoded for the same ISA the branch has been encoded for. While not strictly correct at the source level such code will execute as intended, so to help with these cases ‘-mignore-branch-isa’ is supported which disables ISA mode checks for branches.
By default ‘-mno-ignore-branch-isa’ is selected, causing any invalid branch requiring a transition between ISA modes to produce an error.
This option indicates whether the source code uses the IEEE 2008 NaN encoding (-mnan=2008) or the original MIPS encoding (-mnan=legacy). It is equivalent to adding a
.nan directive to the beginning of the source file. See MIPS NaN Encodings.
-mnan=legacy is the default if no -mnan option or
.nan directive is used.
as automatically macro expands certain division and multiplication instructions to check for overflow and division by zero. This option causes
as to generate code to take a trap exception rather than a break exception when an error is detected. The trap instructions are only supported at Instruction Set Architecture level 2 and higher.
Generate code to take a break exception rather than a trap exception when an error is detected. This is the default.
Control generation of
.pdr sections. Off by default on IRIX, on elsewhere.
When generating code using the Unix calling conventions (selected by ‘-KPIC’ or ‘-mcall_shared’), gas will normally generate code which can go into a shared library. The ‘-mno-shared’ option tells gas to generate code which uses the calling convention, but can not go into a shared library. The resulting code is slightly more efficient. This option only affects the handling of the ‘.cpload’ and ‘.cpsetup’ pseudo-ops.