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9.9.1 Command-line Options

The CRIS version of as has these machine-dependent command-line options.

The format of the generated object files can be either ELF or a.out, specified by the command-line options --emulation=crisaout and --emulation=criself. The default is ELF (criself), unless as has been configured specifically for a.out by using the configuration name cris-axis-aout.

There are two different link-incompatible ELF object file variants for CRIS, for use in environments where symbols are expected to be prefixed by a leading _ character and for environments without such a symbol prefix. The variant used for GNU/Linux port has no symbol prefix. Which variant to produce is specified by either of the options --underscore and --no-underscore. The default is --underscore. Since symbols in CRIS a.out objects are expected to have a _ prefix, specifying --no-underscore when generating a.out objects is an error. Besides the object format difference, the effect of this option is to parse register names differently (see crisnous). The --no-underscore option makes a $ register prefix mandatory.

The option --pic must be passed to as in order to recognize the symbol syntax used for ELF (SVR4 PIC) position-independent-code (see crispic). This will also affect expansion of instructions. The expansion with --pic will use PC-relative rather than (slightly faster) absolute addresses in those expansions. This option is only valid when generating ELF format object files.

The option --march=architecture specifies the recognized instruction set and recognized register names. It also controls the architecture type of the object file. Valid values for architecture are:


All instructions and register names for any architecture variant in the set v0v10 are recognized. This is the default if the target is configured as cris-*.


Only instructions and register names for CRIS v10 (as found in ETRAX 100 LX) are recognized. This is the default if the target is configured as crisv10-*.


Only instructions and register names for CRIS v32 (code name Guinness) are recognized. This is the default if the target is configured as crisv32-*. This value implies --no-mul-bug-abort. (A subsequent --mul-bug-abort will turn it back on.)


Only instructions with register names and addressing modes with opcodes common to the v10 and v32 are recognized.

When -N is specified, as will emit a warning when a 16-bit branch instruction is expanded into a 32-bit multiple-instruction construct (see CRIS-Expand).

Some versions of the CRIS v10, for example in the Etrax 100 LX, contain a bug that causes destabilizing memory accesses when a multiply instruction is executed with certain values in the first operand just before a cache-miss. When the --mul-bug-abort command-line option is active (the default value), as will refuse to assemble a file containing a multiply instruction at a dangerous offset, one that could be the last on a cache-line, or is in a section with insufficient alignment. This placement checking does not catch any case where the multiply instruction is dangerously placed because it is located in a delay-slot. The --mul-bug-abort command-line option turns off the checking.

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