9.23.2 Syntax

In the S12Z syntax, the instruction name comes first and it may be followed by one or by several operands. In most cases the maximum number of operands is three. Some instructions accept and (in certain situations require) a suffix indicating the size of the operand. The suffix is separated from the instruction name by a period (‘ . ’) and may be one of ‘ b ’, ‘ w ’, ‘ p ’ or ‘ l ’ indicating `byte' (a single byte), `word' (2 bytes), `pointer' (3 bytes) or `long' (4 bytes) respectively. Operands are separated by a comma (‘ , ’). A comma however does not act as a separator if it appears within parentheses (‘ () ’) or within square brackets (‘ [] ’). as will complain if too many, too few or inappropriate operands are specified for a given instruction. The MRI mode is not supported for this architecture. Example:

      bset.b  0xA98, #5
        mov.b   #6, 0x2409
        ld      d0, #4
        mov.l   (d0, x), 0x2409
        inc     d0
        cmp     d0, #12
        blt     *-4
        lea     x, 0x2409
        st      y,  (1, x)

The presence of a ‘ ; ’ character anywhere on a line indicates the start of a comment that extends to the end of that line.

A ‘ * ’ or a ‘ # ’ character at the start of a line also introduces a line comment, but these characters do not work elsewhere on the line. If the first character of the line is a ‘ # ’ then as well as starting a comment, the line could also be logical line number directive (see Comments ) or a preprocessor control command (see Preprocessing ).

The S12Z assembler does not currently support a line separator character.

The following addressing modes are understood for the S12Z.

Immediate
# number
Immediate Bit Field
# width : offset

Bit field instructions in the immediate mode require the width and offset to be specified. The width pararmeter specifies the number of bits in the field. It should be a number in the range [1,32]. Offset determines the position within the field where the operation should start. It should be a number in the range [0,31].

Relative
* symbol ’, or ‘ *[+-] digits

Program counter relative addresses have a width of 15 bits. Thus, they must be within the range [-32768, 32767].

Register
reg

Some instructions accept a register as an operand. In general, reg may be a data register (‘ D0 ’, ‘ D1 ... D7 ’), the X register or the Y register.

A few instructions accept as an argument the stack pointer register (‘ S ’), and/or the program counter (‘ P ’).

Some very special instructions accept arguments which refer to the condition code register. For these arguments the syntax is ‘ CCR ’, ‘ CCH ’ or ‘ CCL ’ which refer to the complete condition code register, the condition code register high byte and the condition code register low byte respectively.

Absolute Direct
symbol ’, or ‘ digits
Absolute Indirect
[ symbol ’, or ‘ digits ]
Constant Offset Indexed
( number , reg )

Reg may be either ‘ X ’, ‘ Y ’, ‘ S ’ or ‘ P ’ or one of the data registers ‘ D0 ’, ‘ D1 ... D7 ’. If any of the registers ‘ D2 ... D5 ’ are specified, then the register value is treated as a signed value. Otherwise it is treated as unsigned. Number may be any integer in the range [-8388608,8388607].

Offset Indexed Indirect
[ number , reg ]

Reg may be either ‘ X ’, ‘ Y ’, ‘ S ’ or ‘ P ’. Number may be any integer in the range [-8388608,8388607].

Auto Pre-Increment/Pre-Decrement/Post-Increment/Post-Decrement
- reg ’, ‘ + reg ’, ‘ reg - ’ or ‘ reg +

This addressing mode is typically used to access a value at an address, and simultaneously to increment/decrement the register pointing to that address. Thus reg may be any of the 24 bit registers ‘ X ’, ‘ Y ’, or ‘ S ’. Pre-increment and post-decrement are not available for register ‘ S ’ (only post-increment and pre-decrement are available).

Register Offset Direct
( data-reg , reg )

Reg can be either ‘ X ’, ‘ Y ’, or ‘ S ’. Data-reg must be one of the data registers ‘ D0 ’, ‘ D1 ... D7 ’. If any of the registers ‘ D2 ... D5 ’ are specified, then the register value is treated as a signed value. Otherwise it is treated as unsigned.

Register Offset Indirect
[ data-reg , reg ]

Reg can be either ‘ X ’ or ‘ Y ’. Data-reg must be one of the data registers ‘ D0 ’, ‘ D1 ... D7 ’. If any of the registers ‘ D2 ... D5 ’ are specified, then the register value is treated as a signed value. Otherwise it is treated as unsigned.

For example:

      trap    #197
        bra     *+49
        bra     .L0
        jmp     0xFE0034
        jmp     [0xFD0012]
        inc.b   (4,x)
        dec.w   [4,y]
        clr.p   (-s)
        neg.l   (d0, s)
        com.b   [d1, x]
        jsr     (45, d0)
        psh     cch