The Renease M32R version of as
has a few architecture specific directives:
low
expression
low
directive computes the value of its expression and places the lower 16-bits of the result into the immediate-field of the instruction. For example:
or3 r0, r0, #low(0x12345678) ; compute r0 = r0 | 0x5678 add3, r0, r0, #low(fred) ; compute r0 = r0 + low 16-bits of address of fred
high
expression
high
directive computes the value of its expression and places the upper 16-bits of the result into the immediate-field of the instruction. For example:
seth r0, #high(0x12345678) ; compute r0 = 0x12340000 seth, r0, #high(fred) ; compute r0 = upper 16-bits of address of fred
shigh
expression
shigh
directive is very similar to the high
directive. It also computes the value of its expression and places the upper 16-bits of the result into the immediate-field of the instruction. The difference is that shigh
also checks to see if the lower 16-bits could be interpreted as a signed number, and if so it assumes that a borrow will occur from the upper-16 bits. To compensate for this the shigh
directive pre-biases the upper 16 bit value by adding one to it. For example:
For example:
seth r0, #shigh(0x12345678) ; compute r0 = 0x12340000 seth r0, #shigh(0x00008000) ; compute r0 = 0x00010000
In the second example the lower 16-bits are 0x8000. If these are treated as a signed value and sign extended to 32-bits then the value becomes 0xffff8000. If this value is then added to 0x00010000 then the result is 0x00008000.
This behaviour is to allow for the different semantics of the or3
and add3
instructions. The or3
instruction treats its 16-bit immediate argument as unsigned whereas the add3
treats its 16-bit immediate as a signed value. So for example:
seth r0, #shigh(0x00008000) add3 r0, r0, #low(0x00008000)
Produces the correct result in r0, whereas:
seth r0, #shigh(0x00008000) or3 r0, r0, #low(0x00008000)
Stores 0xffff8000 into r0.
Note - the shigh
directive does not know where in the assembly source code the lower 16-bits of the value are going set, so it cannot check to make sure that an or3
instruction is being used rather than an add3
instruction. It is up to the programmer to make sure that correct directives are used.
.m32r
.m32rx
.m32r2
.little
.big